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Social Inequalities due to Color or Race in Brazil

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The fight against social inequalities in Brazil has been studied by scholars and formulators of public policies involved in the diagnosis and in the implementation of measures to reduce them. Among the multiple forms of expression of these inequalities, that due to color or race takes a core space in this debate, as it involves aspects related to the characteristics of the Brazilian development, whose dynamics produced relevant divides along the history of Brazil. As a consequence, the partial inclusion of the black, brown and indigenous populations in this process resulted in higher levels of social and economic vulnerability, as shown by a number of social indicators that have been continuously released by the IBGE through its studies and surveys.  

Adding value to those initiatives, this report provides an analysis focused on the social inequalities due to color or race, especially those noticed between the white persons and the black or brown ones, due to its high representativeness – nearly 99% – in the Brazilian population. The indicators selected to this aim, mostly coming from the Continuous National Household Sample Survey - Continuous PNAD, encompass subjects essential to the reproduction of the life conditions, like labor market, income distribution, housing conditions, education, violence and political representation, and highlight, in the brief time series under analysis, the severe disadvantages of the black and brown population concerning the dimensions needed to reproduce and/or improve their life conditions.  

It should be highlighted that the subjects involved in this study are included in the Activity Program to the implementation of the International Decade for People of African Descent (2015-2024), approved by the United Nations General Assembly through Resolution 68/237, of December 23, 2013, which aims at fostering the respect, protection and fulfillment of all the human rights and fundamental freedom of that population.

The technical notes about the study are released apart. They show the list of references of the literature consulted and a glossary with the concepts considered key to understand the results.