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Environmental-Economic Accounting


The Environmental-Economic Accounting is a system of measurement and analysis, represented by a set of tables, which describes the interaction between the environment and the economy in order to give support to planning and decision making for public and business policies.

The methodology of economic and environmental accounting has been established by the United Nations through the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting - SEEA, in order to integrating economic, environmental and social data into a single statistical structure, considering also the characteristics of the country with regard to environmental, social and economic particularities and the availability of data. SEEA has eight thematic areas, including specific natural resources, such as water and energy, in addition to Ecosystem Accounting, among others. The proposed methodology for specific resource accounts is based on a central framework that accounts for the natural resources involved in the production of goods and services, establishing a relationship between the natural resources used and the income generated by different economic activities. In Brazil, the series of information on Environmental-Economic Accounting - CEA, results from a partnership between the IBGE and the National Water Agency - ANA. It began with the disclosure of results on the Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water - CEAA, covering the period from 2013 to 2015, based on the methodological recommendations in a specific manual for water: System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water, SEEA-Water. Ecosystem accounting, in turn, is based on the methodological recommendations contained in a specific manual: System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012: Experimental Ecosystem Accounting, SEEA-EEA, given the need to cross georeferenced spatial data. This methodology is being consolidated and tested by the United Nations, and the study is still called Experimental Ecosystem Accounting. The IBGE started the methodological tests for ecosystem accounting in 2017, from its participation in the Natural Capital Accounting and Valuation of Ecosystem Services (Ncaves) project - a United Nations global project, financed by the European Union which includes five countries (South Africa, Brazil, China, India and Mexico). The first results of the Ecosystem Accounting include Land Use in Brazilian Biomes, covering the period from 2000 to 2018, and the Endangered Species in Brazil, whose reference is 2014.

Currently, the accounts for water, energy, forests (wood and non-wood resources), biodiversity, ecosystem extent (ET) and ecosystem condition (EC) are being developed, tested and planned by the IBGE in partnership with specialized institutions. The geographic scope of these studies is national, with results published for different territorial sets.

About the publication - 2000-2020 Physical accounting - Brazil

The effects of economic activities on the environment has been a concern in the last decades. In spite of the comprehensive scope of the summary economic indicators produced at the international level, the debate now is about the benefits obtained from nature, from which the economic activities and human well-being depend on, are not being properly measured with the methodologies consolidated ever since. These discussions resulted in the System of environmental-economic accounting 2012: central framework manual, SEEA-CF, of the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), which aims at complementing the Systems of National Accounts developed by the countries, by introducing accounting principles to the environmental information, so as to allow a combined analysis of these elements in a single structure.

As part of its program of environmental-economic accounting, the IBGE offers, in this study, a reflection on the physical accounting of the Environmental-Economic Accounts for Land in Brazil, considering the dynamics of the occupation of the territory and its changes along the period between 2000 and 2020.

The publication is organized into three sections. The first one, Technical notes, discusses some referentials from which this reflection is based, contextualizes the investigation of land accounting in other countries, describes the directives that guided the development of this study in Brazil and details its major methodological aspects. The second section, Analysis of the results, discusses the matrix of changes in land use and cover in Brazil, reviews the conversions considered relevant in this accounting period, at regional scale, highlighting the occupation patterns, both the recent ones and some historical ones. In order to complement such reflections, it outlines the major land characteristics of the agricultural establishments in Brazil, based on a cross analysis of the IBGE´s statistics, providing a transversal view of geospatial and economic aspects of the agricultural dynamics. The third section, Final considerations, summarizes the major observations on the occupation conversions and land use in Brazil resulting from this study, as well as it assesses aspects of the scenario glimpsed in the scope of the environmental accounting. In the end of the publication, a glossary gathers the concepts considered key to understand the results.

It is expected that this study, coupled with other studies developed in the scope of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounts (SEEA), also available on the IBGE portal, contributes to a more comprehensive knowledge of the Brazilian reality, as well as to the formulation and execution of public policies towards an environmentally-sustainable and economically-efficient management of the Brazilian environmental assets.


More on the product - 2000-2020 Physical accounting - Brazil



Tables of SIDRA system

Environmental-Economic Accounts for Land: Physical Accountability



Map 1 - Land use and cover - Brazil - 2000 (PDF)

Map 2 - Land use and cover - Brazil - 2020 (PDF)

Map 3 - Distribution of areas of changes in land use and cover - Brazil - 2000-2020 (PDF)

Map 4 - Distribution of Pasture with management - Brazil - 2000 (PDF)

Map 5 - Distribution of Pasture with management - Brazil - 2020 (PDF)

Map 6 - Conversions to Pasture with management in the Federation Units - 2000-2020 (PDF)

Map 7 - Conversions from Pasture with management in the Federation Units - 2000-2020 (PDF)

Map 8 - Distribution of Agricultural area - Brazil - 2000 (PDF)

Map 9 - Distribution of Agricultural area - Brazil - 2020 (PDF)

Map 10 - Conversions to Agricultural area in the Federation Units - 2000-2020 (PDF)

Map 11 - Conversions from Agricultural area in the Federation Units - 2000-2020 (PDF)

Map 12 - Distribution of Silviculture - Brazil - 2000 (PDF)

Map 13 - Distribution of Silviculture - Brazil 2020 (PDF)

Map 14 - Conversions to Silviculture in the Federation Units - 2000-2020 (PDF)

Map 15 - Conversions from Silviculture in the Federation Units - 2000-2020 (PDF)



Table 1 - Physical stocks of asset land, according to the classes of land use and cover - Brazil - 2000-2020 (xlsx)

Table 2 - Matrix of changes in land use and cover - Brazil - 2000-2020 (xlsx) - (updated on October 7, 2022 at 12 PM)

Table 3 - Coefficients of correlation between the growth rates of stocks of Agricultural areas and planted areas of the major crops of temporary farming, according to the Federation Units - 2000-2020 (xlsx) - (updated on October 7, 2022 at 12 PM)

Table 4 - Coefficients of correlation between the growth rate of stocks of land classified as Pasture with management and growth rate of the number of cattle head, according to the Federation Units - 2000-2020 (xlsx)

Learn more - 2000-2020 Physical accounting - Brazil


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