The Environmental-Economic Accounting is a system of measurement and analysis, represented by a set of tables, which describes the interaction between the environment and the economy in order to give support to planning and decision making for public and business policies.
The methodology of economic and environmental accounting has been established by the United Nations through the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting - SEEA, in order to integrating economic, environmental and social data into a single statistical structure, considering also the characteristics of the country with regard to environmental, social and economic particularities and the availability of data. SEEA has eight thematic areas, including specific natural resources, such as water and energy, in addition to Ecosystem Accounting, among others. The proposed methodology for specific resource accounts is based on a central framework that accounts for the natural resources involved in the production of goods and services, establishing a relationship between the natural resources used and the income generated by different economic activities. In Brazil, the series of information on Environmental-Economic Accounting - CEA, results from a partnership between the IBGE and the National Water Agency - ANA. It began with the disclosure of results on the Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water - CEAA, covering the period from 2013 to 2015, based on the methodological recommendations in a specific manual for water: System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water, SEEA-Water. Ecosystem accounting, in turn, is based on the methodological recommendations contained in a specific manual: System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012: Experimental Ecosystem Accounting, SEEA-EEA, given the need to cross georeferenced spatial data. This methodology is being consolidated and tested by the United Nations, and the study is still called Experimental Ecosystem Accounting. The IBGE started the methodological tests for ecosystem accounting in 2017, from its participation in the Natural Capital Accounting and Valuation of Ecosystem Services (Ncaves) project - a United Nations global project, financed by the European Union which includes five countries (South Africa, Brazil, China, India and Mexico). The first results of the Ecosystem Accounting include Land Use in Brazilian Biomes, covering the period from 2000 to 2018, and the Endangered Species in Brazil, whose reference is 2014.
Currently, the accounts for water, energy, forests (wood and non-wood resources), biodiversity, ecosystem extent (ET) and ecosystem condition (EC) are being developed, tested and planned by the IBGE in partnership with specialized institutions. The geographic scope of these studies is national, with results published for different territorial sets.
About the publication - 2013-2017 Valuation of ecosystem service of blue water provisioning
Natural capital accounting is an accounting structure designed to measure and compare, over time, the contribution from natural resources and from ecosystems to the social and economic aspects of a given territory, thus providing dynamic and standardized statistics for planning and decision making, aiming at more efficient and sustainable choices in the management of resources.
The IBGE acknowledges the importance of integrating environmental data into the System of National Accounts – SCN, in a way as to consider the use of ecosystem services and observe how the flow of these services in the economic system interferes with biodiversity assets. Therefore, the Institute presents, in this publication, results on valuation of ecosystem service or blue water provisioning in the activities of Abstraction, treatment and distribution of watercorresponding to division 36 of IBGE's National Classification of Economic Activities - CNAE 2.0.
Having as a reference empirical studies found in literature on the topic, the Institute adopted as a method for evaluation of environmental income the residual value approach. The results obtained are based on information from databases of the National Water and Sanitation Agency - ANA, do National Sanitation Information System - SNIS, under the responsibility of the Ministry of Regional Development, and of the System of National Accounts - SCN/IBGE, and show the potential compensation of this production factor, given the characteristics of the economic activitiy being analyzed, having as reference period years 2013 to 2017.
The study, which is also available on the IBGE website, adds to efforts towards the enforcement of international recommendations listed in the manuals System of environmental-economic accounting 2012: central framework, SEEA-CF, and System of environmental-economic accounting 2012: experimental ecosystem accounting, SEEA-EEA, developed by the United Nations, within the scope of project Natural Capital Accounting and Valuation of Ecosystem Services - Ncaves, conducted in partnership with the European Union.
It is worth of notice that the statistics released herein are experimental, that is, they are under evaluation since they have not yet reached complete levels in harmonization, coverage or methodology. Nevertheless, considering the prominent position of Brazil in the construction and development of Environmental Economic Accounting for Water - CEAA developed by the IBGE in partnership with ANA, and the potential contribution of studies about the valuation of water resources in order to discuss whether to charge for direct abstraction of blue water, this group of statistics shows that valuation based on accounting principles is possible, although other surveys in this field are still necessary to support discussion of the topic in Brazil.
Publications - 2013-2017 Valuation of ecosystem service of blue water provisioning
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News and releases
Correction in the publication “Ecosystem Accounting: Valuation of the ecosystem service of blue water provision 2013-2017”
Published date: 04/05/2021
Two typing errors were identified on page 26, in the title for Graph 7 and in the first paragraph, in the unit of measurement adopted in both of the cases.
Actions: The file has been replaced.
Amendment in “Ecosystem accounts: land use in Brazilian biomes 2000-2018” publication
Published date: 16/10/2020
An error was pinpointed by the IBGE in the percentage data of the main conversion of land use in the Pantanal Biome. Due to a typing error, the percentage reported in the publication does not involve that in the survey´s databases.
Actions: The text in the publication was changed to report the correct percentage.
Error in the release date of the publication "Ecosystem Accounting: Species Threatened with Extinction in Brazil 2014"
Published date: 02/10/2020
The IBGE identified an error for the non-compliance with the release date of the publication Ecosystem Accounts: Species Threatened with Extinction in Brazil 2014, expected to be released in October according to the calendar of geoscientific products available on the portal. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the release was postponed until November 05, 2020.
Actions: The release calendar was changed.
Error in the release date of the publication "Ecosystem Accounting: Biodiversity and Species Threatened with Extinction, version 2014"
Published date: 28/09/2020
Error, identified by the IBGE, of non-compliance with the release date of the publication Ecosystem Accounting: Biodiversity and Biodiversity and Species Threatened with Extinction, version 2014, scheduled for September in the geoscientific products calendar on the IBGE web site. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, its disclosure was postponed until October 16, 2020.
Actions: The release date was rescheduled.