The Legal Amazon corresponds to the area under the responsibility of the Superintendence of the Amazon Development – SUDAM established by Article 2 of Complementary Law no. 124, of 03/01/2007. The region is formed by the states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, Tocantins and Mato Grosso, and also by the municipalities of the state of Maranhão located west of the 44th meridian. It has an approximate area of 5 217 423 km², which corresponds to about 61% of the Brazilian territory.
Resolutions and Legislation
Lei nº 1.806 de 06.01.1953
Art.2º A Amazônia brasileira, para efeito de planejamento econômico e execução do plano definido nesta lei, abrange a região compreendida pelos Estados do Pará e do Amazonas, pelos territórios federais do Acre, Amapá, Guaporé e Rio Branco, e ainda, a parte do Estado de Mato Grosso a norte do paralelo 16º, a do Estado de Goiás a norte do paralelo 13º e do Maranhão a oeste do meridiano de 44º.
Lei nº 5.173 de 27.10.1966
Art. 2º A Amazônia para efeitos desta lei, abrange a região compreendida pelos Estados do Acre, Pará e Amazonas, pelos Territórios Federais do Amapá, Roraima e Rondônia, e ainda pelas áreas do Estado de Mato Grosso a norte do paralelo 16º, do Estado de Goiás a norte do paralelo 13º e do Estado do Maranhão a oeste do meridiano de 44º.
Lei Complementar nº 31 de 11.10.1977
Art. 45 A Amazônia, a que se refere o artigo 2º da lei nº 5.173, de 27 de outubro de 1966, compreenderá também toda a área do Estado de Mato Grosso.
Medida Provisória nº 2.146-1, de 4 de maio de 2001
Cria as Agências de Desenvolvimento da Amazônia e do Nordeste, extingue a Superintendência do Desenvolvimento da Amazônia - SUDAM e a Superintendência do Desenvolvimento do Nordeste - SUDENE, e dá outras providências.
Lei Complementar nº 124, de 3 de janeiro de 2007
Institui, na forma do art. 43 da Constituição Federal, a Superintendência do Desenvolvimento da Amazônia – SUDAM; estabelece sua composição, natureza jurídica, objetivos, área de competência e instrumentos de ação; dispõe sobre o Fundo de Desenvolvimento da Amazônia – FDA; altera a Medida Provisória nº 2.157-5, de 24 de agosto de 2001; revoga a Lei Complementar nº 67, de 13 de junho de 1991; e dá outras providências.
About the publication - 2019
The Legal Amazon was established with the purpose of defining the geographic boundaries delimitation of the political region that receives tax incentive to promote its regional development.
The Legal Amazon Map presents state borders, municipal boundaries and positions of headquarter cities that constitute the logistical base for strategic territory control and economic exploitation.
Is the IBGE responsible for the Legal Amazon delimitation?
No. The Legal Amazon was established by Law and the Superintendence of the Amazon Development – SUDAM is responsible for any alteration in its limits.
Why does the IBGE release the Legal Amazon as a geographic subdivision?
The IBGE's aim is to release geographic subdivisions that are relevant for statistical dissemination, planning and for public and private investment. The main objective is the identification of Brazil's political administrative units located in the area defined as Legal Amazon, which require specific management due to their climatic characteristics.
Which is the frequency of Legal Amazon updating?
Legal Amazon, as a legal subdivision, will only have its delimitation updated when there is a legislative or normative update of these subdivisions. There may be updates related to the Territorial Division of Brazil that can impact on the states and municipalities limits and nomenclature.
Where can I obtain more information about the Legal Amazon?
It is possible to get more information on the SUDAM website (http://www.sudam.gov.br/), or from studies released by the IBGE, such as the Natural Resources Geostatistics of the Legal Amazon (https://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/index.php/biblioteca-catalogo?view=detalhes&id=249694).
What are the legislations regarding the Legal Amazon?
The legislations can be consulted on the SUDAM website (http://www.sudam.gov.br/index.php/quem-e-quem/58-acesso-a-informacao/86-legislacao-da-amazonia).
Still in doubt?
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The term Legal Amazon was only incorporated in the most recent legislation, such as Law no. 11,952, of June 25, 2009, and the Forestry Code (Law no. 12,651, of May 25, 2012), and it is not explicitly included in the laws that established the Brazilian Amazon area for the purpose of public policies in the previous decades. The use of the adjective "legal" is to distinguish the division of the Amazon region by biome or river basin established by legislation, as well as of the International Amazon. According to Art. 43 of the Federal Constitution, the Union is in charge of creating the Legal Amazon and can articulate its action in the same social and geoeconomic complex, aiming at its development and at the reduction of regional inequalities. For that matter, the Legal Amazon was established aiming at defining the geographic delimitation of the political region that will attract tax incentives to foster its regional development.
The Legal Amazon is divided into two parts: Western Amazon, comprising the states of Amazonas, Acre, Rondônia and Roraima, and Eastern Amazon, comprising the states of Pará, Maranhão, Amapá, Tocantins and Mato Grosso. The Western Amazon was mentioned for the first time in Decree-Law no. 291, of February 28, 1967, and ratified in Decree-Law no. 356, of August 15, 1968.
The establishment of the Brazilian Amazon area was always associated to the creation of public offices and the implementation of governmental policies. The first definition dates back to 1953, made by Law no. 1,806, of January 6, 1953, which created the Superintendence of the Economic Valorization Plan of the Amazon - SPVEA and established its action area, encompassing the regions comprising the states of Pará and Amazonas, the federal territories of Acre, Amapá, Guaporé and Rio Branco, and also part of the state of Mato Grosso to the north of Parallel 16, part of the state of Goiás to the north of Parallel 13 and part of Maranhão to the west of Meridian 44. It was a geopolitical construction aiming at establishing an area to apply economic and territorial policies to incorporate the north vastness of the Brazilian territory into the socioeconomic fabric, thus assuring the sovereignty over the territory.
In the 1960s, changes in the Brazilian territorial planning led to the extinction of SPVEA and its replacement by the Superintendence for Development of the Amazon - SUDAM, which became in charge of running the Economic Valorization Plan of the Amazon. Nevertheless, the redaction of Law no. 5,173, of October 27, 1966, maintained the Amazon area established by Law no. 1,806, of January 6, 1953.
The Amazon area and, consequently, the action area of SUDAM remained unchanged until 1977, when the state of Mato Grosso do Sul was created. The Complementary Law no. 31, of October 11 1977, extended the border of Amazon beyond Parallel 16, matching the border of the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. The limits of the Legal Amazon were not changed with the enactment of the Federal Constitution, which created the state of Tocantins. Those limits were only changed in 2001, when the Provisional Measure no. 2,146-1, of May 4, 2001, extinguished SUDAM and created the Amazon Development Agency - ADA. The limit represented by Parallel 13, in force up to then, was replaced by the border of the states of Goiás and Tocantins. The same redaction was given by Provisional Measure no. 2,157-5, of August 24, 2001. The Complementary Law no. 124, of January 3, 2007, which recreated SUDAM, established as its action area exactly the same defined by Provisional Measures no. 2,146-1 and no. 2,157-5, of 2001.