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PNAD - National Household Sample Survey
About - 2021
This publication gathers information about the quality of living of the Brazilian population, with commentaries that highlight, for each dimension analyzed, some of the main characteristics observed in different population strata. Its indicators evidence the heterogeneous nature of society from the perspective of social inequalities and are subdivided into five chapters which also approach, as a complement, impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the regularly analyzed statistics.
The chapter Economic structure and labor market presents the correlation between the dynamics of the economy and the performance of labor market indicators, such as unemployment, informality and underutilization, which highlight structural inequalities observed in vulnerable population groups. The chapter Standard of living and income distribution deals with inequalities considering income distribution indicators and monetary poverty and presents impact evaluation exercises regarding the impacts of social programs on household income. The chapter on Education provides an overall view of supply and demand inequalities regarding distance learning in basic education and presents information on the technological inclusion of these students in the face of properly doing their activities during the pandemic, also taking into consideration sanitary conditions and the measures taken by schools to avoid contamination. The chapterHousing encompasses not only the physical structure of housing units, but also their location and insertion in the existing infrastructure, the access to services and their financial costs, among other issues. Finally, the chapter Health deals with some of the dimensions that indicate inequality of access to this service and explores funding in the sector considering public expenditure and household expenditure, the existing infrastructure, the necessity of support due to health-related conditions, and mortality.
The publication richly illustrated with tables, graphs and cartograms, is also available on the IBGE website on the Internet, and presents a full table plan for the five topics surveyed.
The main source of information for the construction of these indicators is the IBGE's Continuous National Household Sample Survey - Continuous PNAD. Other statistics from the Institute, besides records from external sources, help build a multiple picture of the Brazilian social reality, whose comparison with other countries is based on indicators made available by multilateral institutions.
The systematization of these indicators follows international recommendations and adds to the understanding of changes effected in the population's demographic, social and economic profile, thus making it possible to monitor social policies and to disseminate information of great relevance to the Brazilian society as a whole.
More on the product - 2021
Methodological considerations on the National Household Sample Survey - PNAD can be obtained in the Technical notes chapter of its results publication, on the following address: https://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/index.php/biblioteca-catalogo?view=detalhes&id=759.
Tables - 2021
The IBGE adopts a review policy of the data disclosed by this statistical operation. Data review means any and all scheduled revision of numerical data due to new information, which was not accessible at the time of the first disclosure. For instance: late data that replaces a non-response; or data corrected by the informant himself; or a set of data that has undergone editing and imputation. For more detailed information about the published data review policy of the IBGE statistical operations, check the list of short-term, long-term and special surveys carried out by the Institute with their respective revision procedure on: https://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/index.php/biblioteca-catalogo?view=detalhes&id=298009.
Concepts and methods - 2021
As informações a seguir descrevem os metadados estatísticos, que são o conjunto de conceitos, métodos e aspectos relacionados às estatísticas, e são informações necessárias para compreender as características e a qualidade das estatísticas e interpretá-las corretamente.
ObjetivoPossibilitar o conhecimento da realidade brasileira, visando avaliar a qualidade de vida e os níveis de bem-estar das pessoas, as famílias e grupos sociais, a efetivação de direitos humanos e sociais, o acesso a diferentes serviços, bens e oportunidades.
Tipo de operação estatísticaSistema de indicadores síntese
Tipo de dadosDados de Censo, Dados de pesquisa por amostragem probabilística, Registros administrativos, Indicadores
Periodicidade de divulgaçãoAnual
População-alvoPopulação residente nos domicílios particulares permanentes
Técnica de coleta:Não se aplica
Procedimento de amostragemNão se aplica
Crítica e imputaçãoNão se aplica
Temas e subtemasFamília, Grupos populacionais específicos, Trabalho, Trabalho remunerado, Outras formas de trabalho, Rendimento, despesa e consumo, Gênero, População, Condições de vida, pobreza e desigualdade, Educação, Características gerais da população, Habitação, Componentes da dinâmica demográfica e estatísticas vitais
Unidades de informação
Unidade de investigaçãoPessoa, Domicílio
Unidade de análisePessoa
Unidade informantePessoa, Domicílio.
Períodos de referência
Formas de disseminaçãoPublicação Digital (online)
Nível de desagregação geográficaMunicípio da Capital
Publications - 2021
The National Household Sample Survey - PNAD, carried out annually, was finished in 2016, with the release of information for 2015. Planned to produce results for Brazil, Major Regions, Federation Units and nine Metropolitan Regions (Belém, Fortaleza, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Curitiba and Porto Alegre), it surveyed, on an ongoing basis, general characteristics of the population, education, labor, income and housing, and, according to the information needs for the country, having the household as its unit of survey. The PNAD was replaced, with updated methodology, with the Continuous National Household Sample Survey - Continuous PNAD, which provides a more comprehensive territorial coverage and provides quarterly short-term information on the workforce nationwide.
The PNAD started in the second quarter of 1967, and its results were presented quarterly until the first quarter of 1970. From 1971 on, the survey has become annual, being carried out in the last quarter, being interrupted in the years of Population Censuses. In 1974-1975, a special survey, named National Study on Household Expenditure - ENDEF, was conducted and, as it was being carried out, the basic PNAD survey was suspended. In 1994, for exceptional reasons, the survey was not conducted. Over time, PNAD underwent methodological updates, some restricted to the sampling plan, and others related to the comprehensiveness and the conceptualizations of the surveyed aspects, in line with international recommendations.
During the 49 years of its existence, PNAD has been an important instrument for the formulation, validation and evaluation of policies targeted to the socioeconomic development of the population and the improvement of the living conditions in the country.
Re-weighted microdata of PNAD 2001 - 2012 with Projection of the Population of Brazil and Federation Units - Revision 2013, by sex and age. Estimates for the population of municipalities, using the 2000-2010 growth trend of municipalities.
Updated on December 23, 2015 - Documentation of the re-weighted microdata from 2001 to 2012 completed.
- PNAD 2001
- PNAD 2002
- PNAD 2003 - Updated on August 14, 2015 to correct the limits of variable V3033 at the persons dictionary.
- PNAD 2004 - Updated on December 14, 2017 to include variable V4623A (see Technical Note).
- PNAD 2005 - Updated on July 4, 2018 to amend corrupted file.
- PNAD 2006
- PNAD 2007 - Updated on August 14, 2015 to correct the limits of variable V3033 at the persons dictionary.
- PNAD 2008
- PNAD 2009 - Updated on December 28, 2017 to amend variables V0105 and V0106 of five records. Updated on August 7, 2017 to change the name of variable V4623 to V4623A (see Technical Note). Updated on August 14, 2015 to correct the limits of variable V3033 at the persons dictionary.
- PNAD 2011 - Updated on August 14, 2015 to correct the limits of variable V3033 at the persons dictionary.
- PNAD 2012 - Updated on August 14, 2015 to correct the limits of variable V3033 at the persons dictionary.
- PNAD 2013 - Updated on August 7, 2017 to include variable V4623A (see Technical Note). Updated on April 29, 2015 at 12:00pm, including the Basic survey, the Supplement of Food Security and the Supplement of Access to the Internet and Television and Ownership of Mobile Telephones for Personal Use of PNAD 2013.
- PNAD 2014 - Updated on March 23, 2017 at 10:00am, including the Basic, Supplement of Access to the Internet and Television and Ownership of Mobile Telephones for Personal Use, Supplement of Access to the Single Registry for Social Programs of the Federal Government and Programs of Productive Insertion, Supplement of Socio-employment Mobility and Supplement of Education and Professional Qualification surveys.
- PNAD 2015 - Updated on May 17, 2017 at 10:00am, including the Basic, Supplement of Access to the Internet and Television and Ownership of Mobile Telephones for Personal Use of the PNAD 2015, Aspects of Care taking of Children Aged Less than 4 years 2015, Aspects of Labor Relations and Unionization 2015 and Practice of Sports and Physical Activity 2015 surveys.
- Dictionaries and input
- PNAD 2015 Readme
- Reading in R
- Imputation mark
Microdata of PNAD 2001 up to 2012 with Projection of the Brazilian Population - Revision 2008, by sex and age. Estimates for the population of municipalities, using the 2000-2010 growth trend of municipalities.
Methodological considerations can be obtained in Portuguese in the chapter on Technical notes of the result publications of the survey.
News and Releases
IBGE puts out 2019 per capita household income
The IBGE releases today the values of the per capita household earnings relative to 2019, for Brazil...