Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística

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  2000 Demographic Census

Last stage of publication of the 2000 Census presents the definitive results, with information about the 5,507 Brazilian municipalities

The definitive results of the 2000 Demographic Census, published by IBGE, close the publication of the largest and most accurate enumeration carried out in Brazil. With information down to the level of municipalities, the Census reveals, besides economic data, important social and behavioral changes.

The population that declared being black increased nearly twice more than the one that declared being white and eight times more than the mulatto population, but whites are 53.7% of the population and, among employers, there are 80% of whites. Considering the religion of the Brazilian population, data reveal that the Catholic faith maintained the largest diffusion in the states of the Northeast Region, while the largest concentrations of Evangelicals are found in the North Region. As to educational attainment, spiritualists presented the highest average of years of schooling. Considering the color or race, the religions with the largest proportion of white people are Judaism, Evangelical Lutheranism and Islamism.

Infant mortality dropped in the whole Country and more significantly in the Northeast Region. The fertility rates fell over 60% from 1940 to 2000 and Brazil goes to the 69th position of the United Nations ranking, with 2.38 children per woman. Among the states, the largest drop was that of Paraíba and the smallest was found in Rio de Janeiro. In the Country as a whole the average age of fertility was reduced by 1 year from 1991 to 2000.

As to the issue of disability, the 200 Census revealed that 9 million Brazilians with some type of disability were working during the Census reference week. In Paraíba was recorded the largest proportion of disability cases and in São Paulo, the smallest.

Migration data recorded fall in the number of foreigners living in Brazil and increase of nearly three times of the number of Brazilians returning from abroad. Portuguese, Japanese, Italians and Spaniards continued to be the largest contingent of foreigners in the Country.

Regarding labor, in the municipalities with up to 20 thousand inhabitants, the activities of agriculture, livestock breeding, forestry, extractive agriculture and fishing engaged 47.2% of the employed population. Employment with a formal contract was more widespread in municipalities with over 100 thousand inhabitants. The median nominal income of individuals 10 years old and over varied between R$160.00 in municipalities with up to 20 thousand inhabitants and R$401.00 in those with over 500 thousand inhabitants.

The Census showed also that 51% of the Brazilian housing units had on average 1 to 2 occupants per bedroom in 2000. The municipalities with over 500 thousand inhabitants had the largest proportions both of housing units with more than 3 occupants per bedroom and of housing units with only 1 occupant per bedroom. The municipalities with up to 20 thousand inhabitants had the smallest proportions of these two indicators.

Illiteracy rates are higher in less populous municipalities. In 2000, despite the near universal access to school for children 10 to 14 years old, nearly 1 million of them (5.9%) were still illiterate and, among those, 77.8% lived in municipalities with up to 100 thousand inhabitants. Education data reveal also that, despite an overall increase in the years of schooling, the white population had 6.6 years of schooling, while the black and mulatto population had 4.6 years, on average.

Regarding family behavior, the model that still prevails is the classical one composed of a couple and children (55.4%), especially in municipalities with up to 20 thousand inhabitants (57.4%). Those with over 500 thousand inhabitants have the largest proportions of divorced individuals (9.5% of the populations) and of those widowed (4.4%).

COLOR AND RELIGION

In Piauí, 61% of the population in the municipality of Riacho Frio declared being Black

Resident population geometric average rate of annual growth, by color or race and Major Regions

Major Regions and Federative Units Color or race (%)
White Black Oriental Mulatto Indian
Brazil 2,14 4,17 2,14 0,53 10,80
North 5,32 7,76 8,62 1,50 6,22
Northeast 3,77 5,07 10,61 0,35 13,32
Southeast 1,58 2,96 0,98 1,33 20,49
South 1,47 3,68 2,06 0,04 12,21
Central West 3,07 7,05 4,72 1,09 7,95

Source: IBGE, Censo Demográfico 2000.

When comparing the census results for 1991 and 2000, we observe decline in the proportion of individuals that declare themselves mulatto and increase in that of blacks, which may indicate the change in the standards of identification and self-classification of the Brazilian. In the period, the average growth rate of the white population was 2.12%, of the black population 4.17% and the mulatto population, 0.53%.

In 2000, according to the statements provided by the Country’s population, 91,298,042 (53.7%) declared being white; 10,554,336 (6.2%), black; 761,583 (0.5%), Oriental; 65,318,092 (38.4%), mulatto; and 734,127 (0.4%), Indian. Also, still according to census figures, the proportion of individuals that declared being white declined from 1940 (63.5%) to 1991 (51.6%), but in 2000 the proportion increased slightly (to 53.7%). The proportion of the black population, which had been falling since 1940 also (14.6%), presented growth, from 5% in 1991 to 6.2% in 2000. On the other hand, the mulatto population, whose proportion had been growing since 1940 (21.2%), attained in 1991 the proportion of 42.4% and dropped to 38.4% in 2000. The proportion of the Indian population went up from 0.20% in 1991 to 0.43% in 2000.

Proportion of the resident population by color or race – Brazil, 1940-2000

Years Color or race (%)
White Black Oriental Mulatto Indian
1940 63,47 14,64 0,59 21,21 -
1950 61,66 10,96 0,63 26,54 -
1960 61,03 8,71 0,69 29,50 -
1980 54,23 5,92 0,56 38,85 -
1991 51,56 5,00 0,43 42,45 0,20
2000 53,74 6,21 0,45 38,45 0,43

Source: IBGE, Censo Demográfico 1940-2000.

The set made of the population residing in urban and rural areas of the Country have quite different characteristics. While in the urban location of the housing unit the persons that declared themselves white made up more then 50% of the population, in the rural areas that magnitude was attained by black and mulatto people.

Differential characteristics of the color or race composition in Federative Units showed that the proportion of white persons attained a higher percentage in Santa Catarina (89.3%), while the state of Bahia has the highest enumeration of black and mulatto individuals (73.2%).

The Census reveled also that in Rio Grande do Sul, 100% of the population in the municipality of Montauri declared being white. Moreover, the largest proportion of blacks was found in the municipality of Assaí (15%), Paraná, that of mulattos in Nossa Senhora das Dores (98%), Sergipe, and that of Indians (76%) in São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas.

79.8% of employers declared being white

When considering economically active persons, 54.61% declared being white, 6.86% reported being black, 0.48% stated being Oriental, 37.06% were mulatto and 0.40 were Indian. Among employees, 55.64% declared being white, 7.21% were black, and 35.85% were mulatto. Among employers, on the other hand, 79.84% were white, 1.67% was black and 15.74% were mulatto.

Proportion of persons 10 years old and over, employed in the reference week, by color or race, status in employment in primary job and classes of population size of municipalities – Brazil

Status in employment in primary job and classes
of population size of municipalities
Color or race (%)
White Black Oriental Mulatto Indian
Total 55,67 6,68 0,51 36,17 0,40
Employees 55,64 7,21 0,42 35,85 0,31
Employers 79,84 1,67 2,18 15,74 0,18
Self-employed 56,62 5,85 0,64 35,89 0,43
Unpaid worker for family gain 50,80 5,11 0,44 42,40 0,60
Worker on production for own consumption 32,70 8,34 0,17 56,20 1,83

Source: IBGE, Censo Demográfico 2000.

In Rio Grande do Sul, 100% of the population in four municipalities are Roman Catholics

The persons who declared themselves Roman Catholic represented, in 2000, 73.7% of the total population, reflecting the predominance of Catholicism in the Country. The second largest percentage corresponds to the Evangelicals, with 15.4%. Those with no religion ranked third, with 7.4%. Catholics, Evangelicals and not religious represented 96.5% of the population.

The analysis of religion in Country’s population by states showed that Catholicism had a greater diffusion in the states of the Northeast Region, while the states of Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Rondônia presented the smallest proportions of Roman Catholics. The largest concentrations of Evangelicals are found in the northern areas of the Country, and more specifically in the states of Amazonas, Roraima, Acre and Rondônia, and in the states of Goiás, Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo.

In Rio Grande do Sul, 100% of the population in the municipalities of Nova Alvorada, Nova Roma do Sul, União da Serra and Vespasiano Correa declared being Catholic. Also in the same state, in the municipality of Rio Grande, was found the largest proportion of individuals that declared themselves practitioners of "umbanda" and "candomblé" (6.8%), and in the municipality of Quinze de Novembro was found the largest proportion of Evangelical missionaries (80.4%). The largest proportion of spiritualists (42.1%) was found in the municipality of Palmelo, in Goiás, and the highest percentage of individuals with no religion was found in Nova Ibiá (59.8%), in Bahia.

Followers of spiritualism, "umbanda" and "candomblé" have more years of schooling

The educational level of the religious population reveals that spiritualists presented the higher average of years of schooling: 9.6 years. The average for individuals that declared being practitioners of "umbanda" and "candomblé" was of 7.2 years of schooling, for the Evangelical missionaries it was 6.9 years, the Roman Catholics had 5.8 years of schooling, those with no religion had 5.6 years of schooling and the Pentecostal Evangelicals had 5.3 years of schooling.

Average years of schooling by religious affiliation – Brazil – 1991-2000

Religion 1991 2000
Total 4,72 5,86
Roman Catholic 4,63 5,78
Total Evangelical Protestant 4,68 5,83
Evangelical missionary 5,79 6,94
Pentecostal Evangelical 4,00 5,34
Other Evangelical Protestant 5,28 6,41
Jehovah’s Witness 5,36 6,49
Spiritualist 8,34 9,58
Umbanda and Candomblé 6,25 7,19
Other religions 6,41 7,01
No religion 5,06 5,65

Source: IBGE, Censo Demográfico 1991-2000.

Statistics relative to race or color and religion for the Brazilian population show that the religions with the greatest proportion of individuals who stated their color as white are the following: Judaism (96.4%), Lutheran Evangelical missionary (95.8%) and Islamism (88%). The religions with the greatest proportion of blacks are: "candomblé" (22.8%), "umbanda" (16.7%), house of blessing (10%) and no religion (9.3%). The religions with the greatest proportion of mulattos are the following: Roman Catholic (48.5%), God’s Assembly (47.5%), and God Is Love (45.9%). The largest proportions of Orientals follow Buddhism (37.8%) and other eastern religions (36.6%).

INFANT MORTALITY

Infant mortality fell in all states

Infant mortality fell all over the Brazilian states and more significantly in the states of the Northeast Region. While in Brazil the fall was of 37.50%, in the Northeast it reached nearly 40% (39.03%) from 1990 to 2000. Among the states of the Northeast Region, Ceará recorded the largest drop (45.1%), followed by Piauí (43.1%).

Despite the sharp fall, the Northeast Region still records high levels of infant mortality that are virtually twice those found in the Southeast, South and Central West Regions. In 2000, the infant mortality rate in the Northeast Region was 44.73 per 1,000 live births, while in the Southeast the rate was 21.28, in the South it was 18.87, and in the Central West Region it was 21.61.

Generally speaking, these three regions (South, Southeast and Central West) exhibit the lowest infant mortality rates, close to 20 per 1,000 live births. Rio Grande do Sul is the state with lowest rate, 16 out of 1,000 live births. In the Southeast Region, São Paulo presents the lowest rate, 18.6 per 1,000, followed by Rio de Janeiro, with 20.61.

Among the states of the Northeast, Alagoas continued to present the highest infant mortality rate, with 62.54 deaths per 1,000 live births, while Piauí and Ceará present the lowest rates: 36.23 and 39.75, respectively.

Regarding the reduction of mortality, Roraima was, among all Brazilian states, the one with the largest reduction, 56.1% from 1990 to 2000. In the state of Amazonas was observed the smallest reduction, 29.5% of the mortality rate. Rondônia had a reduction from 38.93 deaths per 1,000 in 1990, to 25.92 in 2000. Next after Ceará and Piauí, which are ranked second and third regarding infant mortality reduction, we have Tocantins, with reduction of 40.9%, from 50.62 deaths per 1,000 live births, to 29.93 in 2000.

The United Nations estimate for Brazil in 2000, of 32.5 deaths per 1,000 live births, was surpassed, with the rate of 29.68 recorded by the 2000 Census.

Percent change in infant mortality rates (0/00) in the 1990/2000 period by Federative Units
Federative Units Infant Mortality Rates (‰) Relative Change (%)
1990 2000
Rondônia 38,93 25,92 -33,4
Acre 54,05 35,47 -34,4
Amazonas 42,70 30,08 -29,5
Roraima 42,73 18,74 -56,1
Pará 45,35 29,03 -36,0
Amapá 37,06 25,98 -29,9
Tocantins 50,62 29,93 -40,9
Maranhão 75,02 49,01 -34,7
Piauí 63,69 36,23 -43,1
Ceará 72,45 39,75 -45,1
R. G. Norte 74,54 44,73 -40,0
Paraíba 80,13 48,25 -39,8
Pernambuco 77,58 47,97 -38,2
Alagoas 100,05 62,54 -37,5
Sergipe 69,09 43,38 -37,2
Bahia 64,14 41,04 -36,0
Minas Gerais 37,01 22,20 -40,0
Espirito Santo 32,36 22,11 -31,7
Rio de Janeiro 31,56 20,61 -34,7
São Paulo 31,02 18,57 -40,1
Paraná 36,97 22,15 -40,1
Santa Catarina 29,11 18,05 -38,0
R. G. do Sul 23,49 15,96 -32,1
Mato G. Sul 32,29 20,08 -37,8
Mato Grosso 36,09 22,86 -36,7
Goiás 33,90 21,91 -35,4
Federal District 30,14 18,99 -37,0

Source: IBGE, Censos Demográficos 1970-2000.

FERTILITY

Fertility rates show reduction above 60% from 1940 to 2000

The total fertility rates in Brazil have been declining during the last 40 years, presenting reduction in the period of over 60%. After two decades of stability (in 1940 and 1950 the total fertility was 6.2 children per woman), the rate increased slightly in 1960, to 6.3. Since then, these figures have been presenting significant reduction: 5.8 in 1970, 4.4 in 1980, 2.9 in 1991 and 2.4 in 2000. The rate consolidated by the 2000 Demographic Census attained 2.38 children per woman.

With this result, Brazil was ranked 69th in the comparison with the rates estimated by the United Nations for 187 countries. The list has in one extreme, Nigeria, the country with the world’s highest fertility rate, an average of 8 children per woman, and in the other extreme, Latvia, with an average of 1.1 child per woman, the lowest fertility rate. From the demographic viewpoint, the average of 2.1 children per woman is considered the standard that ensures the replacement of the generations.

Table 1 – Total fertility rates, by Major Regions – 1940/2000
  Total fertility rates
Major Regions 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1991 2000
Brazil 6,2 6,2 6,3 5,8 4,4 2,9 2,4
North 7,2 8,0 8,6 8,2 6,5 4,2 3,2
Northeast 7,2 7,5 7,4 7,5 6,1 3,7 2,7
Southeast 5,7 5,5 6,3 4,6 3,5 2,4 2,1
South 5,7 5,7 5,9 5,4 3,6 2,5 2,2

Central West

6,4 6,9 6,7 6,4 4,5 2,7 2,3

Source: IBGE, Censos Demográficos 1940-2000.

In 2000, the Brazilian major regions presented fertility rates very close to the Brazilian average, which were 2.38 children per woman. The North (3.2) and Northeast Regions (2.7) presented rates above the national average, while the Central West (2.3), South (2.2) and the Southeast Regions (2.1) presented the lowest rates. The contribution of the major regions to the national average did not change very much during the last four decades, when the Southeast and South Regions presented rates always below the country’s average. Between 1960 and 2000, the Southeast Region has presented always the lowest fertility rates, excepting 1960, when the South Region presented the lowest rate (5.9) among the major regions, and the Southeast, with an average of 6.3 children per woman, had the same rate as the country’s average.

Amapá has the highest fertility rate among the federative units

All federative units presented reduction in the fertility rates between 1991 and 2000. The largest fall was recorded in the state of Paraíba, from 3.72 in 1991 to 2.53 in 2000 – a reduction of 32%. The state with the smallest drop (2.4%) of the fertility rate was Rio de Janeiro, with change from 2.09 to 2.04 children per woman between 1991 and 2000. The highest fertility rate was recorded in the state of Amapá, with an average of 3.60 children per woman, and the lowest was found in the Federal District (1.96).

TOTAL FERTILITY RATES BY FEDERATIVE UNITS – 1991 AND 2000
  1991 2000   1991 2000
ACRE 4,90 3,43 RIO GRANDE DO NORTE 3,36 2,54
MARANHÃO 4,64 3,21 PERNAMBUCO 3,26 2,48
AMAPÁ 4,62 3,60 MATO GROSSO 3,06 2,47
AMAZONAS 4,47 3,40 MATO GROSSO DO SUL 2,92 2,40
PARÁ 4,19 3,16 ESPIRITO SANTO 2,75 2,16
ALAGOAS 4,04 3,14 MINAS GERAIS 2,67 2,22
TOCANTINS 3,86 2,93 PARANÁ 2,61 2,31
PIAUÍ 3,78 2,66 SANTA CATARINA 2,57 2,22
CEARÁ 3,73 2,84 GOIÁS 2,50 2,24
PARAÍBA 3,72 2,53 RIO GRANDE DO SUL 2,39 2,17
RORAIMA 3,69 3,20 FEDERAL DISTRICT 2,36 1,96
BAHIA 3,61 2,50 SÃO PAULO 2,28 2,05
SERGIPE 3,58 2,75 RIO DE JANEIRO 2,09 2,04
RONDÔNIA 3,47 2,73      

Average age of fertility drops nearly by one year from 1991 to 2000

From 1991 to 2000, there was reduction from 27.2 years to 26.3 years in the average age of fertility in the country. All federative units contributed to that reduction, except Rio de Janeiro that maintained the average age of fertility at 26.6 years in 1991 and 2000. This reduction of the average age of fertility is associated to the concentration of fertility among the younger age groups of the female population.

Average Age of Fertility
1991- 2000
Federative Units
  1991 2000
CEARÁ 28,6 27,2
PARAÍBA 28,4 26,5
BAHIA 28,3 26,5
ALAGOAS 28,2 26,6
PIAUÍ 28,2 25,9
AMAPÁ 28,0 26,6
ACRE 27,9 26,1
SERGIPE 27,9 26,9
AMAZONAS 27,9 26,2
MARANHÃO 27,8 25,7
RIO GRANDE DO NORTE 27,7 26,3
PERNANBUCO 27,6 26,3
PARÁ 27,6 25,8
MINAS GERAIS 27,5 26,7
RIO GRANDE DO SUL 27,3 27,1
RORAIMA 27,2 25,6
FEDERAL DISTRICT 27,0 26,6
TOCANTINS 26,9 25,2
SANTA CATARINA 26,9 26,6
PARANÁ 26,8 26,3
ESPIRITO SANTO 26,7 25,9
SÃO PAULO 26,6 26,6
RIO DE JANEIRO 26,5 26,4
RONDÔNIA 26,3 25,0
MATO GROSSO 26,1 24,8
MATO GROSSO DO SUL 25,9 25,3
GOIÁS 25,3 24,8

Source: IBGE, Censo Demográfico 1991-2000.

Reduction was observed in specific fertility rates of women in nearly all age groups, except the age group of 15 to 19 years, which increased from 87 in 1991 to 89 births per 1,000 women in 2000. Despite being a small increase, fertility reduction in other age groups made this group of women increase proportionally its participation in the whole. Participation of fertility among women aged 35 and over in the total fertility presented a significant reduction in almost all federative units in the period of 1991 to 2000, excepting only São Paulo (where it increased from 11.3% to 11.5%) and the Federal District (where it increased from 11.7% to 11.8%). These drops are associated to the fact that women are having their children at earlier ages and avoiding children at more mature ages.

With the exception of the state of Roraima, all federative units recorded increase in the contribution of fertility among women aged 15 to 19 years. The largest increases were observed in Piauí, from 12.02% in 1991 to 19.28% in 2000, and in Bahia, from 12.03% to 18.80%. In Roraima, the reduction of the contribution of fertility of women aged 15 to 19 years to the total fertility fell from 22.56% in 1991 to 21.53% in 2000.

The largest fertility rates of women 15 to 19 years old were observed in 1991 in Roraima (180.2, that is, for every group of women aged 15 to 19 years, over 180 of them had already had at least one child), Acre (162.3) and Amazonas (146.9). In 2000, the states leading this ranking are Acre (153.9), Amazonas (140.5) and Amapá (139.1), virtually similar to Maranhão. The states with the lowest fertility rates among women 15 to 19 years old in 1991 were the Federal District (67.9), Minas Gerais (68.5) and Rio de Janeiro (69.2). In the fourth place we had São Paulo (73.5). In 2000, the states with the lowest rates are the Federal District (70.2), São Paulo (70.4) and Minas Gerais (72.8).

MIGRATION

The number of Brazilian returning from abroad increased 2.8 times

When we analyze migration movements using the information about place of residence five years before the census, we observe that the number of Brazilians returning from abroad to Brazil has nearly tripled between the 1991 and the 2000 censuses.

In 1991, 66,217 individuals enumerated stated that they lived in a foreign country five years before. Among them 31,124 (47%) were native Brazilians, 3,485 were naturalized Brazilian (5.3%) and 31,609 were foreigners (47.7%).

In 2000, 143,133 persons stated that they lived in a foreign country five years before, an increase of 116%. Among them, 87,599 were Brazilian (61.2%), that is, an increase of 281.5%. Naturalized Brazilians were 6,636 or 4.6%, and 48,898 or 34.2% were foreigners.

The number of foreigners living in Brazil fell

Based on the information about the place of birth of the persons enumerated, data from the 2000 Census sample reveal that there were 510,068 foreigners living in Brazil in 2000. The number has been falling constantly from census to census, since the most intense migration flows from abroad to Brazil took place until the fifties.

In 1970, 1,082,745 foreigners were enumerated in the Country. In 1980 the figure dropped to 912,848 and in 1991, to 606,636.

Portuguese, Japanese, Italians and Spaniards continued to be to largest contingents of foreigners in Brazil. However, the size of these groups has been falling continually, both in absolute figures and in percent participation.

Foreigners and percentage in the total of foreigners, by census year and country of birth
  1970 1980 1991 2000
Total % Total % Total % Total %
Portugal 410.216 37,89 348.815 38,21 224.849 37,06 175.794 34,46
Japan 142.685 13,18 115.118 12,61 67.024 11,05 52.496 10,29
Italy 128.726 11,89 87.076 9,54 53.543 8,83 43.718 8,57
Spain 115.893 10,70 81.290 8,91 47.047 7,76 35.809 7,02

The only groups that had a continuous growth since 1970 were those of migrants from Bolivia, Peru, Colombia and Guyana, but their participations in the total of foreigners are still small.

Foreigners and percentage in the total of foreigners by census year and country of birth
  1970 1980 1991 2000
Total % Total % Total % Total %
Bolivia 9.945 0,92 10.342 1,13 11.938 1,97 14.642 2,87
Peru 2.141 0,20 3.221 0,35 4.468 0,74 8.232 1,61
Colombia 805 0,07 1.228 0,13 1.694 0,28 3.269 0,64
Guyana 329 0,03 623 0,07 727 0,12 971 0,19

The number of foreigners who are naturalized Brazilians increased from 160,562 in 1991 to 173,452 in 2000, an increase of 8% in the period studied.

Ceará and Paraná reduced their population losses

Using again the information about place of residence five years before the census, the most important changes in the migration balance of the states were observed in Ceará, Paraná, Pará, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro.

Ceará and Paraná reduced their population losses between the last two censuses. In the period of 1986/1991, both were states that lost population. The number of persons leaving Ceará fell 23.8% and the number of persons entering the state increased 33.9%. Thus, its migration balance changed from -123,512 individuals in 1991 to -23,785 in 2000.

In Paraná, the number of persons leaving fell by 29.1% and the number of persons entering the state increased 10.5%. Thus the migration balance changed from -206,113 in 1991 to -39,686 in 2000.

In Pará there was a reversal of the trend. In 1991, the migration balance had been positive, with 29,240 individuals more. In 2000 the balance became negative by 52,195 individuals. This result was due to the increase of 27.9% in the number of migrants leaving the state and to the fall of 14.3% in the number of persons entering the state.

In Minas Gerais and in Rio de Janeiro, we observe the opposite: the migration balance changed from negative in 1991 to positive in 2000. In Minas Gerais, the inflow increased 20.4%, while the outflow fell 14.8% between the two censuses. In Rio de Janeiro the sign reversal was a consequence of increase of 26.2% of the inflow and reduction of 7.1% of the outflow.

Inflow, outflow and migration balance by Federative Units, 1986/1991 and 1995/2000

Federative Units

Inflow

Relative Dif. (%)

Outflow

Relative Dif. (%)

Balance

1991

2000

1991

2000

1991

2000

Total

5012251 5196095   5012251 5196093   0 0

Rondônia

127061 83325 -344 94462 72735 -23,0 32599 10590

Acre

12979 13634 5,0 14343 16070 12,0 -1364 -2436

Amazonas

59366 89627 51,0 44286 58657 32,5 15080 30970
Roraima 35347 47752 35,1 6694 14379 114,8 28653 33373
Pará 212436 182043 -14,3 183195 234239 27,9 29240 -52195
Amapá 23641 44582 88,6 7147 15113 111,4 16494 29469
Tocantins 82326 95430 15,9 71805 82515 14,9 10521 12915
Maranhão 103448 100816 -2,5 237927 274469 15,4 -134479 -173653
Piauí 72950 88740 21,6 139447 140815 1,0 -66498 -52075
Ceará 121652 162925 33,9 245164 186710 -23,8 -123512 -23785
Rio G. do Norte 75570 77916 3,1 76444 71287 -6,7 -8,74 6630
Paraíba 88902 102005 14,7 174058 163485 -6,1 -85156 -61480
Pernambuco 171678 164871 -4,0 317232 280290 -11,6 -145554 -115419

Alagoas

60881 55996 -8,1 112632 127948 13,6 -51751 -71983
Sergipe 55978 52111 -6,9 42213 56928 34,9 13765 -4817
Bahia 186614 250571 34,3 459091 518036 10,4 -282477 -267465

Minas Gerais

3771886 447782 20,4 279397 408658 -14,8 -107511 39124

Espírito Santo

135421 129169 -4,6 90909 95168 4,7 44511 34001

Rio de Janeiro

253401 319749 26,2 295071 274213 -7,1 -41671 45536

São Paulo

1392791 1223811 -12,1 647993 883885 36,4 744798 339926
Paraná 269078 297311 10,5 475190 336998 -29,1 -206113 -39686
Santa Catarina 170304 199653 17,2 125002 139667 11,7 45301 59986
Rio G. do Sul 114295 113395 -0,8 138854 152890 10,1 -24559 -39495

Mato G. do Sul

124046 97709 -21,2 105023 108738 3,5 19023 -11029
Mato Grosso 226906 166299 -26,7 118332 123724 4,6 108574 42575
Goiás 268061 372702 39,0 156665 168900 8,4 111396 202802

Federal District

195233 216200  10,7 143674 188577 31,3 51560 27623

Source; IBGE, Censos Demográficos 1991-2000.

The outflow from São Paulo increased

The migration balance in São Paulo fell approximately 54%, from 744,798 individuals in the period of 1986/1991 to 339,926 in the period of 1995/2000. This behavior was consequence of a reduction 12% in the inflow, together with an increase of 36% in the outflow.

The increase in the number of individuals leaving the state was partly due to the return migration (migrants going back to their state of origin). However, 41% of them corresponded to the movement of natives of São Paulo towards other Federative Units. The largest part of persons leaving São Paulo between 1995 and 2000 went to Minas Gerais, Paraná and Bahia. The states that attained the greatest relative growth, between 1986/1991 and 1995/2000, in the number of persons leaving São Paulo were Piauí (increase of 115.9%), Amapá (95.5%), Ceará (83.7%) and Bahia (80.5%).

Bahia, a state that historically has always lost its population to other states, maintained that trend. Its migration balance, however, reveals a slight decline in absolute figures, from -282,477 in 1986/1991, to -267,465 in 1995/2000. The inflow increased 34.3%, but the outflow also increased (10.4%).

PERSONS WITH DISABILITY

More populous municipalities have a smaller number of persons with disability

The Census revealed the existence of 24.6 million persons with at least one among the types of disability investigated, corresponding to 14.5% of the Brazilian population, 169.8 million inhabitants in 2000. This proportion is greater in the municipalities with up to 100 thousand inhabitants. For the group of smaller-sized municipalities, with up to 20 thousand inhabitants, the percentage reaches 16.3%, dropping to 13% in large municipalities, with over 500 thousand inhabitants.

There are differences also regarding color or race. The Indian and the black populations present proportions of 17.1% and 17.5%, respectively. The white and Oriental populations, on the other hand, present proportion below 14%.

Among the types of disability surveyed, permanent seeing difficulties, even with glasses, was reported by 16.6 million persons, affecting women more. On the other hand, physical disability (quadriplegia, paraplegia, permanent hemiplegia and a missing limb or part of it) affects men more, but the percentage of the population is small (0.9%).

It is important to stress that the proportion of persons with disability increases with age, from 4.3% among children up to 14 years old to 54% of the total number of individuals aged 65 years and over. As the population structure ages, the proportion of persons with disability increases, with a new listing of demands to provide for this group’s specific needs.

Proportion of persons 10 years old and over, with disability or not, employed in the reference weeks, by sex and age groups – Brazil

Age groups in years

Proportion of persons 10 years old and over employed in the reference week

Total

Male

Female

Persons with at least one of the disabilities investigated

Persons with none of the disabilities investigated

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

47,9 61,1 35,4 38,6 51,8 27,3 49.9 63,0 37,2

10 to 14 years

6,6 8,8 4,3 7,0 9,1 4,9 6,6 8,8 4,3

15 to 19 years

33,3 41,9 24,6 28,5 35,1 22,6 33,7 42,4 24,8

15 years

18,4 24,0 12,7 17,4 22,0 13,3 18,5 24,2 12,6

16 or 17 years

29,8 37,0 21,6 25,8 32,1 20,2 30,1 38,2 21,7

18 or 19 years

44,1 54,6 33,4 36,4 44,3 29,3 44,6 55,4 33,7

20 to 24 years

58,8 72,9 44,7 48,3 59,6 38,1 59,7 74,0 45,3

25 to 29 years

66,2 82,9 49,9 55,2 60,7 42,6 67,3 84,4 50,7

30 to 34 years

68,6 85,5 52,6 57,7 71,4 45,0 70,0 87,2 53,5

35 to 39 years

69,5 85,7 54,2 58,3 72,2 46,2 71,3 87,7 55,5

40 to 44 years

68,5 84,5 53,3 50,0 73,0 46,5 71,0 87,1 55,2

45 to 49 years

64,1 81,0 48,4 56,7 72,7 42,6 67,0 64,1 50,6

50 to 54 years

56,3 74,2 39,7 50,2 66,7 35,5 59,2 77,5 41,7

55 to 59 years

46,0 65,7 29,6 41,7 59,2 26,7 49,6 69,3 31,3

60 to 64 years

34,0 52,7 17,5 29,7 46,6 15,4 36,9 56,9 19,0

65 to 69 years

22,7 37,6 10,1 19,5 32,5 8,8 25,3 41,0 11,3

70 years and over

10,6 19,1 4,1 8,4 15,4 3,1 13,0 24,3 5,6

Source: IBGE, Censo Demográfico 2000.

Approximately 9 million persons with disability are working

When considering the insertion of persons with disability in the labor market, we observe a smaller proportion of persons employed in this group than in the group of persons with none of the types of disability investigated. Among the 66.6 million persons 10 years old and over that compose the employed population in the Country there are 9.0 million persons with one of the types of disability investigated.

The proportion of persons employed 10 years old and over is 51.8% for males with any type of disability and 63.0% for males with none of the types of disability investigated, that is, a difference over 10%. A similar difference is observed among females; the proportion of those employed varies between 27.3% and 37.2%. The type of disability that makes more difficult the insertion in the labor market is the mental disability: only 19.3% of the persons that reported having a permanent mental disability are employed. The other types of disability that allow a greater insertion in the labor market are: physical or motor disability (24.8%), hearing disability (34.0%) and seeing disability (40.8%). For those with none of these types of disability, the proportion of employed persons goes up to 49.9%.

Proportion of persons 10 years old and over, with or without disability, employed in the reference week by sex and age groups – Brazil

The wage difference between men and women follows the disparities of the population in general. Of the nine million persons with disability employed in the Census reference week, that is, the last week in July 2000, about 17% of men earned over five minimum wages, while among women, only 9.2% were in that class of income. If we consider the whole set of employed persons who reported not having any of the types of disability investigated, the proportion with income over five minimum wages goes up to 21.4% of men and 14.7% of women.

On the other hand, 25.7% of men and 35.7% of women with disability earned up to one minimum wage at work. Among the persons with none of the types of disability investigated, the percentage of men and women who earned up to one minimum wage drops to 19.3% and 27.3%, respectively.

Regarding the schooling, the differences are significant, 32.9% of the population with no schooling or with less than three years of schooling report disability. The proportions of persons with disability fall when the educational attainment increases, to 10% of persons with disability among those with over 11 years of schooling.

Paraíba records the largest proportion of persons with disability and São Paulo, the smallest

Among the states, Paraíba records the largest number of persons with disability, with 18.8% of the population reporting some type of permanent disability. Considering the population 65 years old and over, the rate goes up to 66.3% in that state.

All the states in the Northeast Region present proportions above the Brazilian average (14.5%). In the states of the North Region, only Tocantins and Pará recorded proportions above the national average. In the Central West Region, all states are below the average. In the South Region, only Rio Grande do Sul is above that average, with 15.1%. In the Southeast Region, São Paulo presents an average of 11.4%, well below the average of the other states.

EDUCATION

Education indicators reveal racial inequality

The 2000 Census showed that the illiteracy rate of persons 15 years old and over varies according to their color or race. While in the white population that rate was 8.3%, in the black population it went up to 21.5%. The Indian population had the largest illiteracy rate (26.1%) and the Oriental population (Asians and descendents), the lowest (4.9%). Among the mulatto population the rate was 18.2%, while for the Country as a whole it was 12.9%.

The illiteracy rates are higher in the less inhabited municipalities. This fact was observed for all categories of color or race. In the cities with up to 20 thousand inhabitants, the illiteracy rate among whites was 14.8%, for blacks it reached 37.5% and for mulattos, 28.9%.

In 2000, despite the near universal access to school for children 10 to 14 years old, 5.9% of them (over one million) were still illiterate, and 77.8% of them lived in municipalities with up to 100 thousand inhabitants. Although they have fallen for all color groups, illiteracy rates are still two times higher for black or mulatto children (9.9% and 8.5%) than for white children (3.0%).

Illiteracy rates among girls were, on general, lower than among boys, but the attention is drawn to this difference among black children: 12.4% for boys and 7.1% for girls.

Illiteracy rate of persons 10 years old and over, by color or race – Brazil 1991 and 2000
  Color or race
Total White Black Oriental Mulatto Indian Not stated
Persons 10 to 14 years old
1991 16,1 7,1 24,5 3,1 23,8 48,6 16,4
2000 5,9 3,0 9,9 3,0 8,5 19,8 8,0
  Persons 15 old and over
1991 19,4 11,9 31,5 5,4 27,8 50,8 18,7
2000 12,9 8,3 21,5 4,9 18,2 26,1 16,1
 
  Reduction of rates between 1991 and 2000 in percentage points
10 to 14 years old -10,2 -4,1 -14,6 -0,1 -15,3 -28,8 -8,4
15 years old and over -6,5 -3,6 -10,0 -0,5 -9,6 -24,7 -2,6

Source: IBGE, Censos Demográficos 1991-2000.

The results reveal that, despite the generalized increase in the average number of years of schooling in the last decade, racial inequalities remain. In 2000, the white population had on average 6.6 years of schooling, while the black population had 4.6 years and the mulatto population had 4.9 years. Although continuing with the lowest average of years of schooling (4.1) the Indian population showed the largest increase (in 1991 the average was 2.1). The largest average of years of schooling was found among the Oriental population with 8.7 years of schooling.

Average years of schooling of the population 10 years old and over, by color or race and sex – Brazil 1991
Sex Average years of schooling of the population 10 years old and over
Color or race
Total White Black Oriental Mulatto Indian Not stated
Total 4,7 5,6 3,4 8,2 3,7 2,1 3,4
Male 4,6 5,6 3,4 8,5 3,5 2,2 3,5
Female 4,7 5,6 3,4 7,9 3,8 2,0 3,2

Source: IBGE, Censo Demográfico 1991.

Average years of schooling of the population 10 years old and over, by color or race and sex – Brazil 2000
Sex Average years of schooling of the population 10 years old and over
Color or race
Total White Black Oriental Mulatto Indian Not stated
Total 5,8 6,6 4,6 8,7 4,9 4,1 5,1
Male 5,7 6,5 4,5 8,9 4,7 4,1 4,9
Female 6,0 6,7 4,8 8,5 5,1 4,1 5,3

Source: IBGE, Censo Demográfico 2000.

Difference between the average years of schooling of the population 10 years old and over, by color or race and sex – Brazil 2000/1991
Sex Average years of schooling of the population 10 years old and over
Color or race
Total White Black Oriental Mulatto Indian Not stated
Total 1,1 1,0 1,2 0,5 1,2 2,0 1,7
Male 1,1 0,9 1,1 0,4 1,2 1,9 1,4
Female 1,3 1,1 1,4 0,6 1,3 2,1 2,1

Source: IBGE, Censo Demográfico 1991-2000.

For the first time, the Census surveyed the distribution of students by public or private school attended, and found out that 81% of them attended public schools. This proportion was 94.2% in the smaller municipalities and 67.6% in the largest ones. In the private schools were 18.9% of the students of the whole Country (5.8% in the smallest cities and 32.4% in the largest ones).

In public schools, there were 68.1% of the students in Child Education, 89% in primary education, 78% in secondary education and 94.7% of adult education students. In higher education, however, only one third of the students attended public universities.

The differences found for Child Education are worthy of mention: while in small towns, 91.7% of the students at this level attended public schools, in the cities with population over 500 thousand inhabitants this proportion dropped to less than half that figure, to 46.8%.

The percentages of students 7 to 14 years old that did not attend the grade expected for their age were still high in 2000, but the index of age/grade lagging was much higher in public education. At 7 years of age, the proportion of students lagging was of 15% both in private and public education. But as the age increased, the difference between the rates went up significantly. The largest gap was observed for children 13 years old: while 27.1% of those in private schools were lagging, the percentage was 65.7% among children in public schools.

Rate of age/grade lagging for persons 7 to 14 years old, by public or private school systems

Brazil 2000

Public education Private Education

In the comparison between the more or the less populated municipalities, it became evident that in those with up to 100 thousand inhabitants the age/grade lagging rates were higher than the national average. Moreover, all education indicators are different according to the population size of the municipality. The population 10 years old and over with no schooling and that with less than one year of schooling, which in Brazil added up to 11.2%, was 18% in municipalities with up to 20 thousand inhabitants, while in those with over 500 thousand inhabitants it is 5.5%.

In smaller towns, 44.4% of the persons 10 years old and over had up to three years of schooling, and only 9.4% had over 11 years of schooling. In larger cities, however, the more educated persons were found: 31% of the population with over 11 years of schooling and 17.9% with up to three years of schooling.

As to school attendance, the greater difference is observed in child education, especially in the age group of 0 to 3 years. The municipalities with over 500 thousand inhabitants have 13.9% of their children in this age group attending school, of more than two times the rate in municipalities with up to 20 thousand inhabitants (6.2%). Only in the age group of 7 to 14 years, where school attendance is nearly universal, the school attendance rates in larger and smaller municipalities are close (96.3% to 93%). The difference increases again in the age groups of 15 to 17 years and 18 to 24 years: 84.5% to 71.2%, and 38.1% to 27.4%, respectively.

The Census results show also that the persons living in urban areas, independently of the municipality class of population size, presented higher educational attainment levels. The same was observed for women’s schooling that usually is higher than men’s.

HOUSING UNITS

More than half the Brazilian housing units have 1 to 2 occupants

The Census showed that 515 of the Brazilian housing units had 1 to 2 occupants per bedroom in 2000. Just 9.9% had 1 occupant per bedroom; 23.8% had 2 to 3 occupants; and 15.2% had more than 3 occupants per bedroom. The density of occupants per bedroom is an important measure of the quality of living.

The municipalities with over 500 thousand inhabitants had the largest proportions both of housing units with over 3 occupants per bedroom (16.1%) and of housing units with 1 occupant per bedroom (11.5%). The municipalities with up to 20 thousand inhabitants had the lowest proportions in these extremes: 14.2% of housing units with over 3 occupants per bedroom and 8.9% of housing units with 1 occupants per bedroom.

As to durable consumer goods, the differences between the larger and the smaller municipalities are also large, even for the more popular goods such as radio sets, TV sets and refrigerators. In the municipalities with up to 20 thousand inhabitants, 81.4% of housing units had radio sets, 74.2% had TV sets and 67.1% had refrigerators. In the municipalities with over 500 thousand inhabitants, the proportions of housing units with these goods were 92.8%, 96% and 94.9%, respectively.

Microcomputers were found in 19.6% of housing units in larger municipalities and in just 2.7% in smaller ones. For VCRs the ratio was of 53.6% to 13.75% (municipalities with over 500 thousand and with up to 20 thousand inhabitants). For microwave ovens, the proportions were 32.9% and 6%; for laundry washing machines, 49.7% and 14%; for air conditioners, 12.2% and 2.4%; and for cars for private use, 40.4% and 23.6%.

Census data revealed inequalities in the provision of public utility services in the larger-sized and smaller-sized municipalities. While 39.2% of the total of Brazilian housing units had telephone lines installed, in the municipalities with up to 20 thousand inhabitants this proportion was of 15.1%, while the municipalities with over 500 thousand inhabitants had 60.3% of housing units with telephone lines installed. Electrical lighting was the utility with the smaller difference: it included 86.4% of housing units in municipalities with up to 20 thousand inhabitants and 99.8% of housing units in those with over 500 thousand inhabitants.

NUPTIALITY

Population in large municipalities has a greater proportion of separated persons

Census data about the conjugal status of the Brazilian population 10 years old and over revealed that the municipalities with over 500 thousand inhabitants had the largest proportions of separated, legally separated and divorced persons (9.5% of their populations) and also of those widowed (4.4%), and the smallest proportion of those married or living together (47.2%).

In 2000 nearly half the population 10 years old and over in the country was formed by persons married or living together (49.5%); 38.6% were single; 7.8% were legally separated, separated or divorced; and 4.1% were widowed. Among those living with a spouse, 71.4% had a civil or religious marriage and 28.6% lived in consensual union. In larger municipalities, the proportion of consensual unions was 31.3%.

By color or race categories, the results showed that the Indian population had the largest proportion of persons living in consensual union: 46.9% among those that lived with a spouse. At the other end, there was the Oriental population, with only 12.5% in this situation and the largest number of formal marriages: 87.5% of civil or religious marriages. The black and Indian populations presented the largest percentages of legally separated, separated and divorced persons (10.2% and 9.7%, respectively).

 

Table 1 – Percentage of persons 10 years old and over by conjugal status and urban or rural situation – Brazil 2000
    Persons 10 years old and over
Urban or rural situation and population size classes Total Conjugal status
Single (1) Married/United Legally separated, separated and divorced (2)
Total Civil and/or religious marriage Consensual union
Total 136 910 358 38,6 49,5 71,4 28,6 7,8
Urban 112 387 959 38,3 49,0 70,8 29,2 8,5
Rural 24 522 399 40,3 51,7 74,0 26,0 5,0

Source: IBGE, Censo Demográfico 2000, Amostra. (1) Do not live and have never lived with spouse. (2) Do not live with spouse but have lived in the past.

FAMILIES

Classical family is still the majority in Brazil

In 2000, more than one half (55.4%) of the Brazilian families were still formed by the couple and their children, according to the classical nuclear family model. In this group, 52.4% had as the person responsible (householder) a man and 3.0%, a woman. The proportion of female single-parent families (woman without spouse) with children was 12.6%.

The classical family had a predominant presence in municipalities with population up to 20 thousand inhabitants (57.4%). Female single-parent families, on the other hand, stood out in large municipalities (14.4%). In smaller municipalities, this type of family arrangement represented 10.1% of the total.

 

Table 2 – Percentage of persons 10 years old and over by conjugal status and color or race – Brazil 2000
Classes of population size of municipalities Persons 10 years old and over
Total Conjugal status
Single (1) Married/United Legally separated, separated and divorced (2) Widowed
Total Civil and/or religious marriage Consensual union
Total 136 910 358 38,6 49,5 71,4 28,6 7,8 4,1
White 74 149 482 36,9 51,3 77,2 22,8 7,1 4,6
Black 8 965 594 37,9 47,3 59,8 40,2 10,2 4,6
Oriental 675 292 35,7 52,9 87,5 12,5 5,8 5,7
Mulatto 51 658 035 41,2 47,2 64,4 35,6 8,4 3,2
Indian 572 945 33,6 52,4 53,1 46,9 9,7 4,3

Source: IBGE, Censo Demográfico 2000, Amostra. (1) Do not live and have never lived with spouse. (2) Do not live with spouse but have lived in the past.

 

Table 1 – Distribution of families by type, urban or rural situation and classes of population size of the municipalities – Brazil 2000
Classes of population size of municipalities Single person 2 or more persons, not related Couple without children Couple with children (1) Woman with children and no spouse Couple with children (2) Other types
Total 8,3 0,2 15,6 52,4 12,6 3,0 7,9
Up to 20,000 8,0 0,1 15,3 57,4 10,1 1,5 7,5
From 20,000 to 100,000 7,6 0,1 15,1 55,3 11,8 2,3 7,7
From 100,001 to 500,000 8,1 0,2 15,6 52,2 13,2 3,3 7,4
Over 500,000 9,5 0,4 16,1 46,4 14,4 4,2 9,0

Source: IBGE, Censo Demográfico 2000. (1) Couple with children and male householder. (2) Couple with children and female householder.

COMMENTS ABOUT THE RESULTS OF LABOR AND INCOME IN THE SAMPLE OF THE 2000 DEMOGRAPHIC CENSUS

Based on the 2000 Demographic Census, a set of indicators has been built for four classes of municipalities defined by population size (up to 20,000 inhabitants; over 20,000 to 10,000 inhabitants; over 100,000 to 500,000 inhabitants; and over 500,000 inhabitants). Based on this set of indicators, it has been possible to notice obvious differences between these groupings of municipalities, in terms of level and composition of the employed population and respective income.

In the employed population, the share of persons residing in rural areas represented 46.3% in the group of municipalities with up to 20,000 inhabitants; 27.0% in the group with over 20,000 to 100,000 inhabitants; 5.4% in the groups with 100,000 to 500,000 inhabitants and just 1.8% in that with over 500,000 inhabitants.

It was observed that the employment level (percentage of persons employed in the population 10 years old and over) in the share residing in urban areas was above that of the rural areas only in the group made up from municipalities with over 500,000 inhabitants.

The male population employment level was 64.3% in the group of municipalities with up to 20,000 inhabitants, falling in the following groups to 59.1% in the group of 500,000 inhabitants and over. The behavior was the opposite for the female population level (32.6% in the group with up to 20,000 inhabitants up to 38.6% in that with 500,000 inhabitants and over).

The female participation in the employed population was of 32.8% in municipalities with up to 20,000 inhabitants and increased with the population-size classes of the municipalities, reaching 42.5% in the group of municipalities with 500,000 inhabitants and over.

Percentage of employed persons in the reference week to the population 10 years old and over, by sex and urban or rural situation and percentage of women in the population 10 years old and over, employed in the reference week, by classes of population size of the municipalities – Brazil 2000

Classes of population size of the municipalities

Percentage of persons employed in the reference week to the population 10 years old and over

Percentage

of women in the population 10 years old and over, employed in the reference week

Total

Male

Female

Urban

Rural

Total

47,9 61,1 35,5 47,6 49,6 37,7

Up to 20,000

48,7 64,3 32,6 46,9 51,0 32,8

Over 20,000 to 100,000

47,1 61,5 32,9 46,7 48,2 35,2

More than 100,000 to 500,000

47,9 60,3 36,3 47,9 49,2 39,1

Over 500,000

48,2 59,1 38,6 48,3 45,5 42,5

Source: IBGE, Censo Demográfico 2000.

In the group of municipalities with up to 20,000 inhabitants, the activities of agriculture, livestock breeding, forestry, extractive agriculture and fishing employed 47.2% of the employed population. Although very far, this percentage relative to the group of municipalities with over 20,000 to 100,000 inhabitants was still quite expressive (27.0%). In the group of municipalities with over 100,000 to 500,000 inhabitants this indicator fell to 5.4% and was just 0.9% in the municipalities with 500,000 inhabitants and over.

Distribution of persons 10 years old and over, employed in the week of reference, by classes of population size of municipalities and groups of activity in primary job – Brazil 2000

Groups of activity of primary job

Distribution of persons 10 years old and over, employed in the week of reference (%)

Total

Classes of population size of municipalities

Up to 20,000

Over 20,000 to 100,000

Over 100,000 to 500,000

Over 500,000

Total

100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0

Agriculture, livestock breeding, forestry, extractive agriculture and fishing

18,5 47,2 27,0 5,4 0,9

Mining and quarrying, manufacturing, Generation and distribution of electricity, gas and water, Construction

21,2 15,2 21,3 26,3 20,9

Trade, repair of vehicles, personal and household goods

16,6 9,5 15,2 20,0 20,1

Services

43,8 28,2 36,4 48,3 58,1

Source: IBGE, Censo Demográfico 2000.

While the category of employees expanded its participation in the employed population with the size increase of population groups of municipalities, the categories of self-employed workers, unpaid workers for family gain and workers on production for own consumption showed decrease. The participation of unpaid workers for family gain and of workers on production for own consumption in the groups of municipalities with up to 20,000 inhabitants and with over 20,000 to 100,000 inhabitants were more relevant because smaller municipalities present a greater concentration of activities that are more propitious to these types of insertion in the labor market.

Among the employed population, the participation of employees was of 53.9% in the group of municipalities with up to 20,000 inhabitants and 74.5% in that with over 500,00 inhabitants. In municipalities with up to 20,000 inhabitants the participation of self-employed workers in the employed population was 26.6%, that of unpaid workers for family gain was 9.6% and that of workers on production for own consumption was 8.1%. In municipalities with over 500,000 inhabitants, these percentages were, respectively, 21.0%, 0.8% and 0.1%.

Distribution of employees 10 years old and over by categories of employment in primary job and classes of population size of municipalities – Brazil 2000

Classes of population size of municipalities

Distribution of employees 10 years old and over (%)

Total (1)

Category of employment in primary job

With a formal contract (1)

Military and civil servants

Other without a formal contract (1)(2)

Total

100 54,8 8,5 36,8

Up to 20,000

100 38,2 10,4 51,4

Over 20,000 to 100,000

100 48,2 8,1 43,4

Over 100,000 to 500,000

100 61,3 7,4 31,3

Over 500,000

100 62,9 8,7 28,4

Source: IBGE, Censo Demográfico 2000. (1) Includes domestic employees. (2) Includes apprentices and trainees.

Distribution of persons 10 years old and over, employed in the week of reference, by status in employment in primary job and classes of population size of municipalities – Brazil 2000

Classes of population size of municipalities

Distribution of persons 10 years old and over, employed in the week of reference

Total

Status in employment in primary job

Employees (1)

Employers

Self-employed workers

Unpaid worker for family gain

Workers on production for own consumption

Total

100 66,6 2,9 23,5 4,0 3,1

Up to 20,000

100 53,9 1,8 26,6 9,6 8,1

Over 20,000 to 100,000

100 62,4 2,6 25,0 5,3 4,7

Over 100,000 to 500,000

100 72,6 3,3 22,0 1,5 0,7

Over 500,000

100 74,5 3,6 21,0 0,8 0,1

Source: IBGE, Censo Demográfico 2000. (1) Includes unpaid apprentices and trainees.

The formal employment contract was more widespread in municipalities with population over 100,000 inhabitants. The percentage of persons with a formal contract in the employed population of the group with over 500,000 inhabitants (62.9%) was close to that of the group with over 100,000 to 500,000 inhabitants (61.3%), but very far from those relative to the groups with up to 20,000 inhabitants (38.2%) and with over 20,000 to 100,00 inhabitants (48.5%).

The median income was smaller in the group of municipalities with up to 20,000 inhabitants and larger in the following groups. This same behavior was observed for the male and female populations.

The median monthly nominal income of persons 10 years old and over, with income, increased from R$160 in municipalities with up to 20,000 inhabitants to R$401 in those with over 500,000 inhabitants. The median income of the first group was close to 40% of that relative to the last group.

The median monthly nominal income of males 10 years old and over, with income, was higher than that of females in the four groups of municipalities. In municipalities with up to 20,000 inhabitants, the median monthly nominal income of females was R$ 151 and that of males was R$200. In the municipalities with population over 500,000 inhabitants, these figures were, respectively, R$349 and 500.

The median monthly nominal income of permanent private housing units, with income, was R$ 350 in municipalities with up to 20,000 inhabitants and R$ 870 in those with over 500,000 inhabitants. The median income of the first group was about 40% of that of the last group.

Median monthly nominal income of persons 10 years old and over, with income, by sex, and income of permanent private housing units, with income, by classes of population size of municipalities – Brazil 2000

Classes of population size of municipalities

Median monthly nominal income (R$)

Of persons 10 years old and over

Of permanent private housing units, with income

Total

Males

Females

Total

300 320 230 562

Up to 20,000

160 200 151 350

Over 20,000 to 100,000

210 263 151 450

Over 100,000 to 500,000

330 400 270 680

Over 500,000

401 500 349 870

Source: IBGE, Censo Demográfico 2000.

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